Survey instruments are used by surveyors to obtain reliable and accurate readings and the distance between terrestrial points. These types of equipment have evolved and become highly advanced during the year. Modern survey instruments achieve precise measurements with global positioning systems, laser data collectors, and digital technologies. The basic tools used for surveying land are tape measurements, chains, dump levels, and compasses. Even though nowadays they are not widely used as survey instruments, they still serve a very important purpose for other applications.
Basic survey instrument
Tape measurement is known as a measuring device used in the dressmaking and construction industry. Made from plastic or fabric that stretches and tears easily, the material in the production of tape uses fiberglass to ensure its durability and precise measurement. Its length is not sufficient to apply for land measurement. In construction or carpentry, measuring tapes are made of metal, when extended can remain straight and rigid but turn into a coil when retracted. It is used to obtain linear measurements.
Compass is a basic type of survey instrument. The compass works by having an independently suspended magnetic needle that points north as its definitive reference. This allows surveyors to correct navigational directions.
A dump level is a survey instrument fitted to find elevations in a building. Its body consists of a telescope that rotates so that 360 degrees can be measured. It has the ability to magnify 20 to 30 times. To see if the instrument is level, the spirit level is built into its base. Its foot has three leveling screws that have to be adjusted to take an accurate measurement. They stand on a tripod which allows them to remain stationary during measurement.
Similar to tape measurement, a series survey instrument is used to obtain linear measurements. This is believed to be the simplest way to obtain measurements because taking measurements is only done on the field while remaining tasks such as calculating can be done in the office.